WHAT IS DISCRIMINATION?
Discrimination is to show favour, prejudice or bias for or against a person on any arbitrary grounds. Examples include, race, gender, sex, pregnancy, marital status, family responsibility, ethnic or social origin, colour, sexual orientation, age, disability, religion, HIV Status, conscience, belief, political opinion, culture, language and birth by an employer.
TYPES OF DISCRIMINATION
FAIR discrimination – the law sets out four grounds on which discrimination are generally allowed-
- Discrimination based on Affirmative Action;
- Discrimination based on inherent requirements of a particular job;
- Compulsory discrimination by law; and
- Discrimination based on productivity
UNFAIR discrimination – any employer’s policy or practice showing favour, prejudice or bias against employees in terms of the abovementioned grounds and which is not fair can be deemed to be unfair discrimination. There are two forms of discrimination related to unfair discrimination, namely –
- Direct discrimination; and
- Indirect discrimination.
FOUR GROUNDS OF FAIR DISCRIMINATION:
- DISCRIMINATION BASED ON AFFIRMATIVE ACTION
Affirmative Action measured are designed to promote employment equity (fairness in favour of designated groups – black people, women and disabled persons). Affirmative Action aims to achieve equality at work without lowering standards and without duly limiting prospects of existing employees. Its main aim is generally to ensure that the previously disadvantaged groups are fairly represented in the workforce of a particular employer.
- DISCRIMINATION BASED ON INHERENT REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB
Any discrimination based on the inherent requirements of the particular job does not constitute unfair discrimination. An inherent requirement of a job depends on the nature of the job and required qualifications. If such requirements can be shown, discrimination is fair, e.g. a person with extremely poor eyesight cannot be employed as an airline pilot.
- FAIR COMPULSORY DISCRIMINATION BY LAW
The law does not allow the employer to employ children under the age of 15 years, or pregnant women four weeks before confinement and six weeks after giving birth.
- DISCRIMINATION BASED ON PRODUCTIVITY
It is also fair by law for the employer to discriminate on the basis of productivity when giving an increase, for example increases based on merit. This of course would be dependent on the fairness criteria utilised for assessing performance and productivity.
TWO FORMS OF UNFAIR DISCRIMINATION:
DIRECT DISCRIMINATION is easily identifiable and involves overt differential treatment between employees and job applicants on the basis of arbitrary grounds. For example an employer follows a policy of remunerating a female employee on a lower scale simply because she is a woman, whereas male a male employee is remunerated at a much higher scale for doing the same work.
INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION is not as easily recognisable as it is a more subtle form of discrimination. It involves the application of policies and practices that are apparently neutral and do not explicitly distinguish between employees and job applicants but that are, in reality, have a disproportionate and negative effect on certain individuals or groups. The law also emphasis that –
- Sexual harassment will be prohibited;
- Medical testing will not be allowed unless it is an inherent requirement of the job;
- Psychological testing or other assessments cannot be done unless such tests are validated and will not be biased;
- In addition, HIV testing can only be carried out if authorised by the Labour Court; and
- All these protections also apply to applicants for employment.
Essentially one has to give consideration to the impact of actions, policies and procedures when evaluating discriminatory practices rather than the intention thereof.
WHAT STEPS SHOULD YOU TAKE WHEN UNFAIR DISCRIMINATION TAKES PLACE
Any employee who feels that he/she has been unfairly discriminated against or that an employer has contravened the laws can lodge a grievance in writing with their employer. The matter can thereafter be referred to the CCMA within six months where the issue cannot be resolved within the workplace. If the CCMA is not able to resolve the dispute through conciliation, the matter can either be referred for arbitration (if both parties agree) or the Labour Court for adjudication